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architecture research paper

Research papers in architecture are often geared towards specific designs or architects. Many architecture research paper topics ranging from the architect Peter Behrens to the Leaning Tower of Pisa are available from Paper Masters. How to Write a Research Paper on Architecture Tips and Hints from Gray Read. What is a Research Paper? How To Pick a Topic. How to Do Library Research and Narrow your Topic. Analysis. Developing a Thesis. Organizing your Ideas and Outlining your Paper. Writing. 1. What Is a Research Paper? 1. Big Questions and Smaller Ones. - The research paper, shall be concerned with discussion Gothic architecture in Europe-namely England, France, Germany, and Italy starting from 12th to the 16th Centuries. Architecture was the most original and lasting form of art during the Gothic Period, which lasted for .

Architectural Research: Three Myths and One Model | ArchDaily

This sample Architecture Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Since prehistoric times, people have created architecture to shelter their activities and to express societal or personal values. Usually the term architecture refers to a building or group of architecture research paper, but the field overlaps with interior design and with architecture research paper and urban design. Many architects agree with the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius c.

To accomplish this architects must understand a how to employ one or more structural systems to support the design, b how the design will be used once it is built, and c what a client or society will find visually pleasing.

Therefore, architects are faced with choices regarding approaches to the building site, available materials, and building technologies. Nomadic humans of the foraging Paleolithic era c. In the Neolithic era c. They crudely quarried large stones megalithsmoved them by barge and by sled on rollers, and raised them on earthen ramps to create trabeated or post-and-lintel structures dolmens of vertical columns supporting horizontal beams. The most famous example of such a structure, located on Salisbury Plain, architecture research paper, England, is Stonehenge c.

The more common dolmen was a sepulchral chamber built of megaliths and buried within an artificial hill, called a cairn. Little remains of more humble buildings, except their influence on the surviving vernacular architecture of villages around the world, rooted in the myths and traditions of the people.

In African Cameroon each Bamileke village has a central open space, chosen as sacred by the ancestors. Built in stages from the tenth to the mid-thirteenth century CE, the quarrying, timber cutting, architecture research paper, and transport during the construction were done without metal tools, wheelbarrows, or draft animals.

Sandstone walls defined adjacent living units accessed from openings in the wooden roofs. Hundreds of units encircled central plazas under which the Anasazi built subterranean sacred gathering places kivas.

Men entered a kiva—women were forbidden— through a hole in a domed ceiling of interlocking pine logs. Because the number of rooms at Pueblo Bonito far exceeds evidence of human habitation, and the desert locale made obtaining food a constant challenge, archaeologists believe that the Anasazi devoted many of the rooms to food storage, architecture research paper.

When threatened by enemies, the Anasazi abandoned the Great Houses for dwellings built into the sides of easily defensible, south-facing cliffs, architecture research paper, such as those at Mesa Verde, Colorado twelfth—thirteenth centuries CE, architecture research paper.

Urban civilization—dependent on the development of writing, trade, diversified employment, and a centralized government—produced a variety architecture research paper monumental building types, generally to glorify gods and god-kings. In the first cities of Mesopotamia, temples were raised heavenward on giant stepped platforms called ziggurats. Both temple and ziggurat were built of sun-dried mud brick using bearing-wall construction.

The Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu c. In Central America the stepped pyramids of the grand city architecture research paper Teotihuacan c. They formed the backdrop for the rituals and public events associated with the temples, which took place on the top platforms. Of the monumental tombs, the most famous are the three Great Pyramids of Giza c. Workers probably used wooden rollers and sleds on earthen ramps to elevate the heavy stone blocks, and levers to place them in their final locations.

These tombs memorialized god-kings for eternity and were seen as ladders for royal spirits to reach the heavens, architecture research paper. In Greece beehive-shaped tombs survive, architecture research paper, such as the Treasury of Atreus c. The tomb, half buried architecture research paper excavated inremained the largest uninterrupted interior space in Europe architecture research paper over a thousand years, architecture research paper, until the Pantheon in Rome built in the first century CEexceeded it in size.

A third type of monument served rulers during their lives. The ancient Greeks influenced later Western builders with their post-and-lintel building tradition. Their three types of orders—systems of columns supporting entablatures—were distinguished by proportion and decoration, Doric being the most simple, Ionic more elegant in proportion than the Doric, and the Corinthian the most elaborate. Stone blocks of limestone and marble were held in place by metal clamps and dowels, and terracotta tiles covered the sloping wooden roof rafters.

The Parthenon featured a stepped platform and an exterior row of columns or colonnade that sheltered a central room housing a gigantic statue of Athena, architecture research paper. The entire temple was marble, architecture research paper, even the roof. Surfaces were stuccoed, painted, architecture research paper embellished with colorful relief sculpture and friezes much admired for their graceful naturalism.

Ancient Roman buildings, complexes, and new towns were regimented by simple geometric spaces related along clear axes and were often constructed using new materials and technologies. Voluminous interiors were created by using the semicircular arch, a method of spanning space with many small wedge-shaped elements that balanced against one another. Three-dimensional extrusions of the arch formed tunnels, rings, architecture research paper, domes, and other types of spaces.

The Romans employed concrete—a mixture of cement, water, and aggregate that can take on many flowing shapes—and faced it in stone or coursed brick and tile. The best-known examples of Roman architecture, the Pantheon temple — CE and the Colosseum amphitheater c. The Pantheon, the result of sophisticated engineering despite its apparently simple dome shape, is one of the most remarkable structures existing in Rome today; from the inside the eye is drawn by a circular pattern of coffers recessed panels toward the ceiling about 43 meters, or feet, high at the summitwhere light flows through a 9-meter- foot -wide oculus central opening.

This multiaisled building featured parallel stone colonnades that supported the masonry walls above. Those in turn held up a roof structure of wooden trusses, rigid triangular frames that resulted in the typical gabled roof form. The glittering, glass mosaic surfaces of the interior were hidden by a bare brick exterior. Byzantine Christians in the eastern half of architecture research paper empire chose Roman vaulted structures as their models, resulting in the Cathedral of Constantinople, Hagia Sophia — CEby Anthemios of Tralles and Architecture research paper of Miletus.

The enormous masonry dome, though it rested on four curved triangular surfaces called pendentives seemed to float unsupported above the interior, thanks to the ring of windows at the base of the dome and the light-reflecting surfaces of mosaic and marble throughout the vast interior.

Also inspired by Rome, Islamic builders developed a new building type for communal worship, architecture research paper, the mosque. The Great Mosque eighth—tenth centuries CE in Cordoba, Spain, exhibited the horseshoe-shaped arches architecture research paper alternating stone and brick bands that became typically Islamic, while innovatively stacking the arches in two levels, thereby creating a limitless sense of space.

Dazzling marble and mosaic decoration was limited to stylized vegetation and other nonrepresentational patterns, according to Muslim practice. Stupas, religious structures fundamental to the Buddhist world, were first constructed to house the cremated remains of the Buddha after his death in BCE. Protected within a wall featuring four elaborate gateways, the earth-and-rubble-filled dome of the Great Stupa represented the mountain of the world.

Pilgrim worshippers circumambulated the building on walkways at two levels, reflecting the Buddhist belief in cyclical Earthly suffering that was only relieved upon reaching nirvana, architecture research paper. In the centuries after the Roman Empire, European Christians supported powerful monasteries, whose builders turned to bearing-wall construction in limestone, granite, and sandstone. Master builders maintained the basilican church form a rectangular building with side aisles separated from the center nave by colonnadesbut ultimately they replaced the simple plan and trussed roof with more complex solutions to the problems presented by increasing numbers of pilgrims and concerns over fire safety.

During the Romanesque Era c. Extensive sculpted ornament in abstracted forms greeted visitors with Christian lessons of good versus evil. The French church of Saint-Sernin c. Structural experiments coalesced in the later twelfth century and throughout the thirteenth, during the Gothic era, led by northern France, which dominated Europe at that time.

Gothic verticality, aspiring to express divine loftiness, combined with great visual coherence at Chartres Cathedral —where the minimal stone skeleton supported walls of stained glass illustrating sacred and secular themes.

This effect was made possible through the combined use of the structurally efficient pointed arch, the framework of arched ribs rib architecture research paper that allowed lighter vault panels, and the flying buttress that supported the vaults architecture research paper the building. Broad and steep roofs of innovative wood truss design protected the church vaults, architecture research paper. A very high level of roofing technology was also evident in the contemporary wooden stave churches using post-and-beam construction of Norway.

Around the same time, builders in South and East Asia likewise developed impressively tall structures to house images of their gods and to visually connect Earth with heaven. Hindu Indians created the Visvanatha Temple to Siva c. Seemingly countless voluptuous sculptures covered the exterior surfaces that climaxed at the mountain-like tower over the inner sanctum.

In China and Japan, Buddhist pagodas served similar uses but were characterized by their winged eaves and centralized plans. In Europe continued insecurity encouraged the powerful to live in fortified castles. A moat and high walls with towers protected inner courts and the main multistoried residence, called a keep or donjon the word dungeon is a derivative.

By the latter Middle Ages, improved security fostered the development of the less-fortified, but still grand, manor house; the main room, or great hall, a multifunctional entertainment space, required sturdy roof support in the form of various trussed solutions. The Islamic rulers of Spain produced luxurious, sprawling palace complexes, such as the Alhambra thirteenth—fourteenth centuries in Granada. The gardens interspersed throughout the complex provided refreshing water, fragrant plants, and soft, indirect lighting.

Rooms had ethereal domes, whose structure was veiled by muqarnas, open, honeycomb-like cells made from stucco or wood. Beginning in the fifteenth-century Italian Renaissance, men with humanistic educations, not just practical building experience, aided by familiarity with classical antiquity, mathematics, and orthogonal drawing, won many architectural commissions, architecture research paper.

Their buildings and publications argued for the unity of architectural practice and theory. Its facade—a classical temple front and triumphal arch, with two sets of Corinthian pilasters on the architecture research paper the grand interior: an immense barrel-vaulted nave flanked by tall chapels. Efforts to supersede classical accomplishments were evident in the contemporary architecture of Rome.

The first grand scheme by Donato Bramante for rebuilding the Basilica of St. Peter affirmed the humanist interest in the idealized centralized church plan, architecture research paper. Michelangelo also designed a monumental civic center, the Campidoglio begunits complexity organized by a strong central axis, colossal pilasters on the building facades, and the view over the city. Renaissance ideas spread from Florence and Rome.

Near Venice, Andrea Palladio, an experienced stonemason and a humanist scholar, architecture research paper, advanced his own influential architectural treatise; by the eighteenth century most educated people including Thomas Jefferson in America had his Four Books of Architecture in their libraries.

In his design for a suburban residence near Vicenza, architecture research paper, Italy, the Villa Rotonda begunhe appropriated the portico four, actually, architecture research paper, one on each side of the square structure and central domed hall formerly associated with religious buildings. The building is famous for its idealized siting, harmonic proportions, simple geometries, and clear axial relationships.

Idealized masonry monuments of the West contrasted with the idealized wooden post-and-lintel structures of the East, climaxing in Ming dynasty — China. Though grander in size and ornament than other Chinese halls, its arrangement of standardized interchangeable parts was similar.

A grid of wooden columns supported fingerlike brackets, which in turn held boxlike truss beams or stepped roof trusses that produced the characteristic curve of the tiled roof.

In the seventeenth-century West, Renaissance priorities blended with the dynamic growth of science, nationalism, and religious fervor.

Intense ornamentation was common during the period and spread to Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America. Christopher Wren, who was a scientist before becoming an architect, reworked continental influences in his redesign for St.

In Bavaria structural experimentation, illusionism, and spatial complexity climaxed in works such as the Residence of the Prince-Bishops — in Wurzburg, by Johann Balthasar Neumann. Eighteenth-century architectural influences included the Enlightenment, which emphasized the individual person; increased historical scholarship, especially archaeology; and the Industrial Revolution. Yet with Horace Walpole, Adam also created the mysterious, picturesquely asymmetrical Gothic Revival Strawberry Hill — at Twickenham, its different parts appearing to be centuries-old accretions.

French architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot combined Gothic structural lightness with classical spatial purity in his Church of Ste. Etienne-Louis Boullee drew unbuildable projects, architecture research paper, like the Cenotaph to Isaac Newton —architecture research paper classical but sublime giant hollow sphere that celebrated the achievements of the great physicist. By the mid-eighteenth century, Europeans began to seek increasingly private and comfortable residences. Renovated — in the delicate Rococo style by Germain Boffrand, the Hotel de Soubise in Paris incorporated intimate interiors that were easily heated by improved fireplace design and easily illuminated by large windows and mirrors.

Residences of the wealthy incorporated dumbwaiters and corridors to allow greater separation between masters and their servants.


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architecture research paper


- The research paper, shall be concerned with discussion Gothic architecture in Europe-namely England, France, Germany, and Italy starting from 12th to the 16th Centuries. Architecture was the most original and lasting form of art during the Gothic Period, which lasted for . I'm planning to write my research paper on architecture or design for my english class. I have thought about some topics but I'm having some trouble finding an original idea because this research is not for people who are in the design industry. As it is going to be graded by my english. Jan 08,  · Here are some topics.. which might help.. * Integrated design - Campus planning * Transit planning in small and medium-sized towns * Advanced structures & Lightweight architecture * Parametric design in architecture * Protecting wildlife near urba.